updated december 2018
this section covers the head, head bolts/studs, intake trough, valves, rockers, exhaust ports and mods, and pistons. head oiling, camshaft and especially lifters, valve springs and related are mentioned. on my 2010 build i did a heavy cleanup of the ports and combustion chambers with a Foredom tool and a big bag of abrasive rolls. for 2017 the head got a little more improvement by the builder including some proprietary valve seat and pocket work.
the best thing that can be said about this head is that the trough design keeps the ports short and relatively straight. however there was (is) substantial protrusion and sharp corners, and heavy valve shrouding. i was able to clean up a lot of that, but the cylinder head dissection revealed a lot of thin areas that precluded a better job. nonetheless i think it's much improved.
the head has a trough intake, adequate and short short paths, with only one 90 degree turn each from carb to valve. combustion chamber is a popup wedge. the trough has clever Nash anti-reversion wedges that make for excellent fuel distribution.
some of the intake ports are paired/siamesed, some are not. front to rear, the intake pattern is I-II-II-I. this confounds port injection fuel-injector layout. throttle body injection would be adequate anyway.
it has an interesting advantage in that it delivers perfect mixture distribution to all cylinders, a problem on long inline sixes. if you click on the picture above, between cylinders 2 and 3 (and 4 and 5), adjacent to the second head stud from the front of the engine, you will see within the right hand trough wall a ramp-shaped protrusion cast into the trough. It pinches mixture flow at that point -- it is an anti-reversion device, preventing back-flow of intake mixture pulses. All six plugs burn to the exact same color.
the trough is covered with a cast aluminum trough plate, a very handy design for hacking induction. It's flat, easy to fabricate from scratch if necessary.
AMC had two carburetor options for this engine: a single-venturi as the base model (Holley 1904, 1906 or 1908 in Americans, or Carter AS or RBS in Classics, depending on year and transmission), and a two-venturi Carter WCD called the "Power Pak" option (relatively uncommon in it's time and now a desirable option). all are very reliable, easy to maintain and un-fussy to adjust and drive, but are lousy performers. for the sort of driving I increasingly do, the WCD annoyingly starved out in every hard turn.
anecdotally, the one-barrel carb "runs out of steam" about 3000 rpm wide open throttle; the WCD will get you about 3500 rpm before it flats out. They are allegedly 200 and 300 cfm flow, respectively, which ought to be enough for more power than that, but experience says otherwise.
i'm on my fourth carburetor type, each has been an improvement over the previous. as of this writing (december 2018) the Weber IDF 44 is not yet installed. there's not a lot of how-to detail below. all except the IDF 44 requires no serious fabrication, mainly throttle linkage and fuel and vacuum plumbing.
each are discussed below.
|Carter WCD (stock)||single||simple and reliable; starves in modest turns; hard to find|
|Weber 32/36 DGEV "Jeep kit"||single||easy install, great for dead-stock engine|
|Weber 38/38 DGV||single||larger symmetrical version of 32/36, better performance|
|Weber IDF 44||modified dual||much larger flow; no choke; fabricated plenum|
weber carbs are more popular on european and japanese small displacement sports cars, often one per cylinder or cylinder pairs. hence they run smaller, flow-wise. american performance stuff usually assumes four venturi carbs, because most american performance stuff assumes V8 configuration engines, where a single square carb makes more sense. also i'm not drag-racing, which seems to be the heaviest (often unquestioned) emphasis. most of my driving is part throttle.
the webers are far more easily tuned than american style four barrels; however they require lots of tuning to work right. luckily that's fairly easy. there's more or less three circuits (idle, low-speed and main jets) each quite independently tuned with little interaction. a selection of jets and an A/F ratio meter makes this fairly straightforward.
currently a work in progress.
the IDF series are so-called "race" carbs, more or less downdraft versions of the DCOE and other side drafts. there is no choke (though there is a separate, optional, enrichment circuit available), and they are even more tunable that the DG types (all jets including main jets changeable from outside the carb).
the two 44mm bores (1.73") are larger than the WCD ("Rochester 2G") trough plate bore area. i milled out a WCD trough plate to the same area (approximately 4.6 square inches) and fabricated a steel adapter to smoothly blend two 1.75" tube into the single rounded-rectangle hole in the trough plate (very roughly 3.5" x 1.5") as smoothly as possible. the steel plenum was pinned to the trough plate then blended smoothly. the big hole precluded using the original mounting studs so recessed socket head bolts fasten the trough plate to the head and four socket screws bolt the plenum to the trough cover.
after doing the math and drawings on the port areas the plenum was roughed out, since it was the gating item for all that follows. the tube is odd sized to get the desired 1.75" ID. i had to buy the whole 10-foot length to get the 6 inches needed here.
the trough plate was milled out at this time. it was kind obvious that the original mounting studs were not going to be usable.
smoothing and blending was where all the work was. the lower end of the tubes had to be shaped partially squared to meet in the middle. lots of tapping, but i'd already calculated the area so it matched the pre-cut steel flange tha mates to the trough plate, which was a tiny amount undersized so i'd have room to match the aluminum to the steel.
i got nearly all of the smoothing done in steel; i ended up using a small amount of JB Weld which according to the always-authoritative internet (...) seems to hold up in this application.
once the steel plenum was made and shaped the rest was straightforward. the Redline Jeep kit YF adapter is 2" high, this one is 3". i wanted it shorter but that made the tube-to-flange angles troublesome so i increased height. i lose some hood clearance but the air cleaner will be mounted inside an airbox attached to the hood, not the carburetor.
the carb itself got some working over. the booster venturis were usable out of the box, but the aluminum castings benefit from some hand attention not feasible at the factory. the venturi castings were rough on the leading and trailing edges, with ground-off sprue stubs and other rough stuff. not visible here is that the internal passages in the fuel feed from the bowls are internally rough, with flash partially occluding the port. these got attention via magnifier and tiny needle files.
the 2017 build required more carburetor, and research showed that the Weber 38/38 ought to be adequate. never before have i had a single component change make so much improvement in overall performance. however, with this build i had also changed transmission (from two different 3-speeds to a custom T5 and carefully selected axle and tire size) and so RPM range and driving habits changed to match, which also allowed for much more aggressive spark advance as well, which in turn changed how and what RPM ranges i drove at. given all the changes it's impossible to assign improvement to any one change. in general, i'm running the engine at much higher rpms than the 2010, stock build. 3500 rpm was "scary", now it's routine. accordingly spark is set for these higher rpms and i no longer lug it like the stock engine.
the 38/38 is a drop-in (hence no install-specific photos), bolt-on compatible with the 32/36 and an immediate improvement. of course with both carbs you have to fabricate throttle linkage. a small anoyance is that the left-side idle mixture screw interferes with valve cover removal; the screw needs to be removed to get the cover off.
(in my opinion, this carburetor plus an ignition upgrade would be a noticable improvement at least cost and increased reliability.)
Redline makes a "Jeep Weber kit" that bolts onto the 195.6 OHV's trough plate. the adapter raises the carb enough to clear the valve cover (which can be removed with the carb installed); if you look closely at the picture to the right, you can see how close the carburetor is to the valve cover.
the 32/36 also runs out of flow (subjectively) around 3000 rpm. however it's tiny primary bore is a great match for low speed luggy stock engine and gears, and is far more tunable than stock carbs. it also does not starve out in turns.
(the 38/38 and 32/36 venturis are aligned perpendicular to the trough; hence the carb sits sideways. on the smaller carb this solves the different flow rates of the progressive asymmetrical bores.)
here's the overall relationship of head with the trough plate, adapter and carburetor installed:
it was easy to blend the adapter to the trough plate and remove all the right angles and sharp edges in the flow. The first thing was to add locating pins to the plate and adapter so that it would stay in alignment after blending. (the adapter has slotted holes that let it slide around.) unfortunately I neglected to take any photos of this, but it's not rocket science. I picked a likely place for two 1/8" pins on the plate where the carb goes and drilled two 1/16" holes about 3/8" deep. into these holes I dropped nipped-off wire brads with the points sticking up above flush approximately 1/32". I carefully aligned the adapter by hand, set it onto the plate (sitting on the brad tips) and whacked it hard with my hand, pricking the bottom of the adapter. I used the prick marks as guides to drill 1/8" holes for the pins, and replaced the brad tips with 1/8" wire. the adapter was to the plate and filed to match.
with the adapter joined to the plate, I smoothed them where i believed the flow would actually go. the big hole in the bottom of the plate had sharp 90-degree edges; I smoothed these as much as I dared, probably a 1" radius. the carb end of the adapter I made slightly (1/32" or so) larger than the carb bore. the inside of the adapter itself was cast lumpy; I smoothed that out substantially, left it with a faintly venturi shape, and increased the overall diameter about 3/16".
for my 2010 build i bought used but resurfaced tappets. this turned out to be a mistake, as the resurfacing apparently removed all of the hardened surface of the mushroom head, precisely where it is most critical. the working face of all 12 tappets was severely pitted, while the matching cam lobe was essentially fine. this was not an oiling issue, but metallurgy.
in the first image below you can see one of the cam lobes; they all looked like that. that is in fact the cam that ran with these tappets.
for the 2017 build i bought new, NOS, tappets from Kanters. they have a faint crown. the mushroom head is black oxide, as is the pushrod ball socket. overall length of the NOS tappets is 1.878", i measured 6 of the old ones, all were shorter at 1.864" in height. this implies that the resurfaced parts had .014" removed, assuming all tappets are initially the same height.
there's a discernable (thumbnail) wear pattern on the cylindrical section, up under the mushroom. this appears to me to be the lateral force caused by the cam thrusting the follower sideways during normal operation; that's a feature of the mushroom design (and why AMC and everyone else ditched them). as the cam operates, the lobe wipes the tappet crown, slightly off-center, rotates the tappet presumably to distribute wear. the follower "rocks" in it's bore with each cam cycle a tiny amount. this scuffs the cylindrical portion of the tappet top and bottom, the rocking pivot point more or less in the center, but offset towards the pushrod end. it's just the sum of the leverages. this leaves (microinches) of gap, where there's no contact, the metal is darker (in the pic above). none of this is unusual or bad or anything, it's just what happens to metal in use. but after 60 years it's a lot of wear.
i stringently ran Mobil 1 15W-50 after a generous dino oil breaking, with ZDDP breakin additive. two changes. that worked great on the 232 (350,000 miles). maybe that's not so good here.
pete had custom forged pistons made that accept a modern 81mm ring set. the dull aluminum piston in some of the photos is a 1970's Silv-O-Lite .060" over piston from a set i purchased on ePay years ago and never used.
you'd think the stock valve setup would at least be a no-brainer here, but it wasn't. the previous machine shop botched this, including resurfacing new valves i had bought in 2010, and cut the exhaust seats too deep. pete had to use a larger exhaust valve, which didn't exist, so a Chevy valve was turned down.
you might also think that stock-replacement valve springs and retainers would be easy, but no: there are different springs for the OHV and flathead versions of this engine, reasonably enough; the flathead spring is 40lbs closed, the OHV is 80lbs. they look identical. Kanters shipped me 40 lb springs back in 2010. (my receipt shows i ordered the correct part). Pete measures every spring he installs and caught the error. they were also binding with what appeared to be the stock retainers. new springs and retainers were found (i dont know what the source is) to solve this. after 50 years nothing can be "assumed".
it should be no surprise that there are no (and never were) aftermarket performance cams for this engine. a used cam was reground, but because the base circle is only .020" or so larger than the rough casting increasing lift or duration is not possible. but Pete's cam genius crammed 110 degrees lobe separation into it.
[for future reference: the L-head engine's cam appears to be identical to the OHV cam except for it's profile, and especially, lift. because it does not have the advantage of rocker multiplication, the lobes are taller, and therefore have more metal that could be ground to make a good OHV cam. this needs to be verified.]
the rocker shaft assembly is straightforward and reliable. rocker ratio is 1.5:1. the shafts wear and new ones are not available. i've had no trouble with the rockers nor the adjusters. new adjusters are available.
head oiling is accomplished by the rocker shaft itself being pressurized, via the front-most stand, up through a port in the head, which is fed by an external steel line (3/16" inverted flare tube down to either the main gallery, or via the front camshaft journal in 1964 and 1965; the front journal on those camshafts are flatted to provide intermittent top-end oil).
alas, the rocker shaft can't simply be inverted to wear the other side, as oil ports are milled into it to lubricate the bottom (loaded side) of the rocker.
for what they're worth, here are some rocker assembly movies taken while i was adjusting the valves.
the exhaust side of the head is overall not too terrible, with the sole exception of the carb-heat provision in the center siamesed ports. in 2010 i equalized exhaust ports to make them all equal.
this engine is notorious for head gasket failure and subsequent external coolant leaks, water in the oil, all preceded by chronic overheating issues. see the cooling section for a very simple fix to this deadly problem.
before i had worked out the cooling issue to my satisfaction i also replaced all of the head bolts with studs from ARP. after my experience with them here i will probably replace bolts with studs in all future engines.
Studs are superior to bolts for this application. When a head bolt is torqued, it remains twisted along it's length, due to friction in the threads and under the bolt head. Any transverse motion in the head (caused by thermal cycling...) backs out the bolts. With studs, all of this friction is at the top of the stud, which remains un-twisted. Quality and tolerances are better too.
Since ARP doesn't make a "kit" for this motor and my application isn't particularly stressful on the studs, I simply picked their stock parts from the catalog. There are three different stud lengths. They are coarse threaded at the block end and fine threaded at the top. Twelve-point nuts, machined washers and ARP lube was used. Part numbers are below.
|Item||ARP part number||Quantity||Location|
|Stud, 7/16" x 5.75"||AP5.750-1LB||6||Through trough plate|
|Stud, 7/16" x 5.5"||AP5.500-1LB||4||Head ends|
|Stud, 7/16" x 4.5"||AP4.500-1LB||5||Under valve cover|
|7/16" ID non-chamfer washer||APW1316N||15|
|Assembly lube||n/a||1||Thread lubricant|
apparently at the factory the bodies were set over the engine and transmission assembly on the line. preventing easy insertion from above is the front welded-in cross-brace, just behind the radiator top tank. mine had long ago been hacksawed out, as is common. with it out of the way top-insertion is relatively easy. i've added a bolt-in internal triangular brace between the inner fenders and firewall to replace it.
i've installed engines without the head attached (2010) and with head and complete transmission (2017). the latter definitely requires that the hoist have a load-shifting trolly.
ARP recommends three torque/release cycles on new studs. for the 2010 assembly, and before operation, I did four, without the headgasket, since that gets a one-time crush. I left the third torque to set overnight. After final assembly with gasket in the car I measured stretch on one stud at .012" when torque increased from 20 ft/lbs to the rated 75 ft/lbs. Thanks to David Forbes for the measurement suggestion.
The studs were bottomed in the block and snugged up with an allen key two-finger tight, assembled with ARP hardware and lube and torqued in three stages to the rated 75 ft/lbs. I did not start it until the next day.
Upon every retorque each nut rotated the exact same amount. This was good, because two end nuts will not accept a socket when the rocker shaft is installed; I used a box-end wrench and extender and turned them the same rotational angle as the rest did with the torque wrench. (i'v never found a 12-point box end crows foot socket.)
these same studs were used in 2017, and the builder used his own method of assembly.
the factory technical service manual for these engines has the peculiar requirement of cylinder head retorque schedule of check every 4000 miles, and re-torque every 8000, done while the engine is hot. this is just plain weird, and i am convinced this was due to the head expansion/thermal cycling problem designed into the head, and that is utterly negated by the cooling system fix and ARP studs.
in 2018 i am still running the ARP studs installed in 2010, and other than initial break-in my annual torque-checking has revealed zero need for retorquing. without the thermal-cycling problem there is no need to retorque.
my annual check now consists of setting the torque wrench at 60 ft/lbs and simply checking for loose head nuts. none have loosened. since i have to remove the valve cover annually for valve adjustment (nearly unnecessary) this takes little effort.
The third retorque, at 1000 miles, zero rotation. It appears that stud stretch and headgasket crush is complete. [in 2010 i wrote:] I will continue to check it at intervals, but hopefully the need for constant retorquing is over [in 2018 this seems true].
Here are some pics of the studs installed in the lab. this is the 2010 build.
The stock head bolts penetrate the block exactly one inch. Placement isn't that great, at least to my novice eye; some are along casting side walls, and some are in the middle of horizontal spans. Headbolt spacing is wildly uneven, but there's nothing to be done about that. Here are pics of the stock bolts and their protrusion through a section of a junk head: